Contemporary techniques to the laboratory diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction (Dementia) in elderly patients.


  • Shahula Ali Charisma University, Kursk State Medical University





Dementia is a severe condition affecting more than 55 million people worldwide. In elderly patients, it leads to an overall decline in memory and thinking skills. It affects the patient and those around the patient, including family and caregivers. The symptoms can become so severe that the person's ability to perform everyday activities becomes compromised. This study aims to search and collect information about the sensitivity and specificity of available laboratory diagnostic methods for patients with Dementia and identify if these methods will be effective in giving a specific and definitive diagnosis. The specificity and sensitivity of four main laboratory testing methods have been included in this review: blood panels, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma biomarkers, hormone testing, and genetic testing. The methods are each explained separately with details of their importance and which specific parameters they screen for have haven included. Numerous blood panels and laboratory diagnostic techniques have been suggested for the timely and accurate diagnosis of Dementia and its various types; however, when the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques are considered, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma biomarkers are found to be the most effective. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other types of Dementia are now diagnosed using the biomarkers amyloid- (A), tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181). With 93 percent accuracy in diagnosis, the innovative Precivity AD test created by the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis might be regarded as both highly sensitive and specific.


WHO, Dementia, Fact Sheet, 20 September 2022

NHS, Dementia GuideTests for diagnosing Dementia, Page last reviewed: 3 July 2020

Physiopedia, Dementia, Fact Sheet.

Robinson. L, Tang. E, Taylor. JP, Dementia: timely diagnosis and early intervention.

Stanford Medicine Health Care, Laboratory tests for Dementia nerves/dementia/diagnosis/laboratory-tests.html

Walk In Lab, Dementia blood test panel

Nho K, et al. Association of altered liver enzymes with Alzheimer disease diagnosis, cognition, neuroimaging measures, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. JAMA Network Open. 2019;2(7):e197978. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.7978.

Wang. M, Ding. D, Zhao. Q, et al.Kidney function and dementia risk in community-dwelling older adults: the Shanghai Aging Study, Alzheimer's Res Ther. 2021; 13: 21. Published online 2021 Jan 11. doi: 10.1186/s13195-020-00729-9 PMCID: PMC7798296 PMID: 33430940

Crane. P. K, Walker. R, Hubbard. R. A., et. al Glucose Levels and Risk of Dementia. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 Mar 15. Published in final edited form as: N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 8; 369(6): 540–

doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1215740 PMCID: PMC3955123 NIHMSID: NIHMS515512 PMID: 23924004

Yaffe K, Blackwell T, Whitmer RA, Glycosylated hemoglobin level and development of mild cognitive impairment or Dementia in older women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10:293–5.

Sachdeva. A, Chandra. M, Choudhary. M, et al. Alcohol-Related Dementia and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Review Study Int J High Risk Behav

Addict. 2016 Sep; 5(3): e27976. Published online 2016 Feb

doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.27976 PMCID: PMC5086415 PMID: 27818965

Brefel-Courbon. C, Drugs Effect on Cognition in the Elderly therapy 2015 Nov- Dec;70(6):523-6. doi: 10.2515/therapie/2015038.Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Szoeke. C, Downie. S, Phillips. S, et al. Chapter 9- Hormones and Dementia, 2021, pages 233-267

Scerri. C, Abela. A, Scerri. A, Chapter 13 - Living with Dementia and caregiving: Psychosocial considerations through the gender lens 2021, Pages 361-391

H.H. Lee, S. Park, J.Y. Joung, et al. How does androgen deprivation therapy affect mental health including cognitive dysfunction in patients with prostate cancer? The World Journal of Men's Health, 38 (2020) 2021 Oct; 39(4): 598–

Published online 2020 Jul 21. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.200092

V.L. Villemagne, S. Burnham, P.Bourgeat, et al. Amyloid beta deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline in sporadic Alzheimer's disease: A prospective cohort study, Lancet Neurology, 12 (4) (2013), pp. 357-367

Carcaillon. L, Brailly-Tabard. S, Ancelin. M, et al. Low testosterone and the risk of Dementia in elderly men: Impact of age and education Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Oct;10(5 Suppl):S306-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.06.006.Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Crilly. M, Potassium and Memory, Dec 27, 2018

Vintimilla. R.M, Large. S. E, Gamboa. A. et al, The Link between Potassium and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Mexican-Americans. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Extra 2018;8:151–157

Chung. M, Yu. T, Shu. K, et al. Hyponatremia and increased risk of Dementia: A population-based retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):

e0178977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178977 PMCID: PMC5462431 PMID: 28591195

Giil. L. M, Solvang. S. H, Giil. M. M, et al. Serum Potassium Is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Patients with Lewy Body Dementia. Alzheimers 2019;68(1):239-253. doi: 10.3233/JAD-181131.

Mills. B, how does Thyroid function impact dementia risk? August 15, 2022 impact-dementia-risk

Akintola. A. A, Jansen. S. W, Bodegom. D. V, et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years: a systematic review and meta- analysis Front. Aging Neurosci., 11 August 2015 Sec. Neurocognitive Aging and Behavior

Dumurgier. J, Schraen. S, Gabelle. A, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β 42/40 ratio in clinical setting of memory centers: a multicentric study. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy volume 7, Article number: 30 (2015) 7143 Accesses.

National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health®, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Biomarkers for Dementia Detection and Research. Fact Sheet. June 2020.


Kivisäkk. P, Magdamo. C, Trombetta B. A. et al. Plasma biomarkers for prognosis of cognitive decline in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Brain

Commun. 2022; 4(4): fcac155. Published online 2022 Jun

doi: 10.1093/braincomms/fcac155 PMCID: PMC9257670 PMID: 35800899

Palmqvist. S, Stomrud. E, Cullen. N, et al. An Accurate fully automated panel of plasma biomarkets for Alzheimer’s disease. Published: 11 August 2022

Koriath, C.A.M., Kenny, J., Ryan, N.S. et al. Genetic testing in Dementia — utility and clinical strategies. Nat Rev Neurol 17, 23–36 (2021).

Genetic testing for Dementia, Page last reviewed: 08 October 2021 testing-dementia

Huq AJ, Sexton A, Lacaze P, et al. Genetic testing in dementia-A medical genetics perspective. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2021 Aug;36(8):1158-1170. doi: 10.1002/gps.5535. Epub 2021 Mar 28. PMID: 33779003.

Everding. J, Blood test for Alzheimer’s highly accurate in large, international study. February 22, 2022 international-study/

Taggart. M. S, The PrecivityAD™ Alzheimer’s Test: A Q&A with C₂N’s Joel Braunstein, MD, MBA. June 2, 2021 joel-braunstein-md-mba




How to Cite

Ali, S. (2023). Contemporary techniques to the laboratory diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction (Dementia) in elderly patients. Special Journal of the Medical Academy and Other Life Sciences., 1(1).