Role Of Acute Vascular Distress Syndrome In The Development Of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome In Sars-Cov-2 And Modern Views On The Research And Treatment Of Critical Coronavirus




Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has highlighted the complex pathology of the virus, which extends beyond respiratory symptoms to include multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS). This review explores the role of Acute Vascular Distress Syndrome (AVDS) in the development of MIS in both adults (MIS-A) and children (MIS-C), providing a comprehensive overview of modern research and treatment approaches for severe coronavirus infections.

Methods and Materials: This review synthesizes findings from multiple studies and clinical reports to analyze the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 induces AVDS and subsequently MIS. Key materials include molecular and cellular research data, clinical case studies, and treatment protocols. Diagnostic tools such as PCR and serological testing, as well as various biomarkers like neurofilament light chain and galectin-3, are discussed to elucidate their roles in identifying and managing severe COVID-19 cases.

Results: The interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host endothelial cells, mediated by ACE2 receptors, triggers a cascade of inflammatory responses leading to AVDS. This syndrome is characterized by severe endothelial dysfunction, cytokine storms, and mitochondrial distress, which collectively contribute to the pathogenesis of MIS. Clinical evidence indicates that AVDS is a critical factor in the severity of COVID-19, with widespread implications for multiple organ systems, including the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Conclusion: Understanding the role of AVDS in MIS development offers valuable insights into the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19. Effective management requires a multifaceted approach, combining antiviral therapies, immunomodulators, and supportive treatments like extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Future research should focus on targeted therapies to mitigate endothelial damage and improve patient outcomes in critical COVID-19 cases.


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Vasilieva M., Groppa S. (2023). Nanotechnology - progress in neuromodulation. Collection of Abstracts. Research in Biomedicine and Health. Fundamental Problems of Medicine: Quality. Excelente and Performance. Annual Scientific Conference. October. 18-20. Current issues in neuroscience. Moldovan Journal of Health Sciences; 3:10: Annex 1: 394.

Bejenari A., Vasilieva M., Gasnaș A., Bondarciuc A., et al. (2023). Bacterial Meningoencephalitis during pregnancy. Case report. Collection of Abstracts. Research in Biomedicine and Health. Fundamental Problems of Medicine: Quality. Excelente and Performance. Annual Scientific Conference. October. 18-20. Current issues in neuroscience. Moldovan Journal of Health Sciences; 3:10: Annex 1: 430.

Efremova D., Ciobanu N., Glavan D., Leahu P., Racila R., Bălănuță T., Matei A. , Vasileva Maria, Bondarciuc A., Bejenari I., Cojocaru A., Groppa S. (2023). EPO-202. Gender-specific relationship between homocysteine levels and carotid atherosclerosis in apparently healthy individuals. Cerebrovascular diseases 2. Abstracts of the 9th Congress of the European Academy of Neurology June 2023. Budapest, Hungary. European Journal of Neurology, 30 (S1): 450.

Vasilieva Maria, Istratii Diana, Zota Eremia, Crivorucica Igor, Vasilieva Irina, Groppa Stanislav. (2022). Hypokalemia- stroke mimic. Case report. In: European Journal of Neurology., S1:29:884. ISSN 1351-5101 CZU: 616-08-039.35+616.8-005

Efremova Daniela, Ciobanu Natalia, Glavan Danu, Leahu Pavel, Vasilieva Maria, Groppa Stanislav et al. (2023). Serum Urate Levels and Ultrasound Characteristics of Carotid Atherosclerosis across Obesity Phenotypes. In: Biomedicines.,11:1-12. ISSN -. doi:10.3390/biomedicines11071897

Efremova D., Ciobanu N., Glavan D., Leahu P., Racila R., BălănuțăT., Matei A., Vasilieva Maria, Bondarciuc A., Bejenari I., Cojocaru A., Groppa S. (2023). 995. Relevance of Body Mass Index- Dependent gradients of seric Uric Acid levels for Stroke prediction in apparently Healthy Individuals. © European Stroke Organisation 2023. European Stroke Organisation Conference ESOC 2023 Abstract Book May 2023. European Stroke Journal., 8;2(S).

Vasilieva Maria*. Istratii Diana, Crivorucica Igor, Zota Eremei, Vasilieva Irina, Groppa Stanislav. Severe Hypopotassemia as a Stroke Mimic. The 9-Th Edition of MedEspera. 12th-14th of May 2022. Chișinău. Republic of Moldova. 2022;205.

Irina Vasilieva. Maria Vasilieva. The role of social networks in reducing stress. The "8th International Summit on Neurology and Brain Disorders». Conference. June 17-18, 2022. Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Câlcai C., Hadjiu S., Revenco Ninel, Iavorschi E., Rodoman I., Vasilieva Maria. (2017). Evolutionary peculiarities of cerebral stroke in young children following craniocerebral trauma: clinical case. In: Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Medical Sciences., 2(54):320-323. ISSN 1857-0011

Chiosa V., Ciolac D., Chelban V., Gasnas D., Vataman A., Munteanu C., Groppa S., Leahu P., Condratiuc E., Aftene D., Dragan D., Racila R., Doten N., Stoianov N., Condrea A., Ropot D., Vasilieva Maria. (2021). Drug-resistant epilepsy: modern concepts, integrative mechanisms, and therapeutic advances. Moldovan Medical Journal., 64(4):72-85

Vasilieva Maria, Oglindă-Catirău G., Groppa S. (2022). Catamenial status epilepticus. A rare condition or an underdiagnosed event. In: MedEspera: International Medical Congress for Students and Young Doctors, Ed. 9th edition, 12-14 mai 2022 Chişinău. Chisinau, Republic of Moldova.,9:158.

Cucusciuc C., Vasilieva Maria, Zota E., Crivorucica I., Manea D., Groppa S. (2022). Bithalamic ischemic stroke. Clinical case. In: Moldovan Journal of Health Sciences.,3: An.1:29:285. ISSN 2345-1467.

Vasilieva Maria, Oglinda-Catirau Gabriela. (2022). Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in pregnancy. Report houses. In: Moldovan Journal of Health Sciences., 3: An.1:29: 94. ISSN 2345-1467. CZU: 616.831-005-036]:618.2-071

Vasilieva Irina, Vasilieva Maria, Vasiliev I., et al. (2020). Maria & Irina Vasilieva Syndrome Contributes to the manifestation of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Syndrome (CFS / ME). National Congress of UroGynecology. Supliment Ginecologia ro., 30: 4: Supl 2; 28.

Vasilieva Maria, Dmitriev Iu., Bejenari A., Gorincoi N., Aftene D. (2021). The “dual diagnosis” of pharmacoresistant epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Clinical case. In: Cercetarea în biomedicină și sănătate: calitate, excelență și performanță, Ed. 1, 20-22 octombrie 2021, Chişinău. Chișinău, Republica Moldova., (R):238. ISBN 978-9975-82-223-7

Lisu M., Vasilieva M., Crivorucica I., Ciobanu V. et al. (2023). Limbis encephalitis is a very rare complication of the Epstein-Barr virus. Collection of Abstracts. Research in Biomedicine and Health. Current issues in neuroscience.: Quality. Excelente and Performance. Annual Scientific Conference. October. 18-20. Moldovan Journal of Health Sciences; 3:10: Annex 1: 395.

Vasilieva Maria, Bejenari Irina, Gasnaş Alexandru, Manea Diana, Groppa Stanislav. Transient global amnesia as a possible manifestation after COVID-19 infection. Clinical cases. Conference "Research in biomedicine and health: quality, excellence, and performance" Chisinau, Moldova, October 20-22, 2021

Vasilieva Maria , Dmitriev Iulia, Bejenari Aliona, Gorincioi Nadejda, Aftene Daniela. The “dual diagnosis” of pharmacoresistant epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Clinical case. Conference "Research in biomedicine and health: quality, excellence, and performance" Chisinau, Moldova, October 20-22, 2021

Mirta D’Ambra, Vasiliev I., Karindas Mark. (2019). Small brain vessel disease. Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research., 19:14555-6 DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2019.19.003355

Diug V., Vasiliev I. (2018). Definitive Haemostasis in Hematoma Postpartum Massive Hemorrhage.The sum of Summaries. Iasi: National Conference.; 44-46

Raghavendra Rao, MM Karindas, Ilie Vasiliev, Chennamchetty Vijay Kumar et al. (2022) 'Is Covid Vaccine Immunity Success Story Gives “A Lot of Happy Tears”?', International Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research, 08(07):294-300 doi:

Raghavendra Rao M.V. *, Srilatha Bashetti, A. Rekha, Swarna Deepak et al. (2023). Candor in medical laboratory management: “Quality is doing the right thing and making things right”. World Journal of Biology Pharmacy and Health Sciences., 13(03), 210–220.


Vasilieva Irina, Vișnevchi A., Vasilieva Maria, & Vasiliev I. (2023). Total Quality Management as Predictor of Artificial Intelligence Ensures Competitive Marketing. Special Journal of the Medical Academy and Other Life Sciences., 1(8).

Devaux CA, Camoin-Jau L. (2023). Molecular Mimicry of the Viral Spike in the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Possibly Triggers Transient Dysregulation of ACE2, Leading to Vascular and Coagulation Dysfunction Similar to SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Viruses. , 15(5):1045.

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Vasilieva Maria, Vasilieva Irina, Vasiliev I., Groppa S. et al. (2018). Neurovegetative Correction of Diencephalic – Hyperkinetic, Catabolic Adrenergic Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Research in Anesthesiology.;1(2):1-3.

Vasilieva Maria. (2018). An altered state of consciousness is a possible factor to amplify the therapeutic effect in the case of neurostimulation in chronic pain. In: MedEspera: International Medical Congress for Students and Young Doctors, Ed. 7th edition, May 3-5, 2018, Chisinau. Chisinau, Republic of Moldova: 7:56-57

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Gowrisankar A., Easwaramoorthy D., Valarmathi R., Eliahim Jeevaraj PS., Christo Ananth, Ilie Vasiliev. (2023). An Integrated Perspective of Fractal Time Series Analysis for Infected Cases of COVID-19. In Book: Santo Banerjee, A. Gowrisankar. (2023). Fractal Signatures in the Dynamics of an Epidemiology. An Analysis of COVID-19 Transmission. In Book: Santo Banerjee, A. Gowrisankar. (2023). Fractal Signatures in the Dynamics of an Epidemiology. An Analysis of COVID-19 Transmission.

Raghavendra Rao M.V., Vijay Kumar Chennamchetty, MM Karindas, Vasiliev Ilie et al. (2022). A Citation, Distinction, Honor, and Tribute To Frontline Corona Warriors'. International Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research.,08(07):321-325

Vasilieva Maria. Bejenari Irina. Groppa Stanislav. (2021) Differential diagnosis of cacosmia and dysgeusia in the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical case report. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. October. 2021; 429.119610:119781:71 doi:

Vasilieva Maria, Gasnaș Alexandru, Bejenati Irina, Vasilieva Irina, Manea Diana, Groppa Stanislav. (2021). Overlap mechanisms of transient global amnesia and COVID-19 infection: review. In: 7th Congress of the Society of Neurologists Issue of the Republic of Moldova, Ed. 7, September 16-18, 2021, Chisinau. Chisinau: Curier Medical Magazine., 64,R:50. ISSN 2537-6381 (Online)

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Vasilieva, I., Vasilieva, M., & Vasiliev, I. (2023). A Intralipid blocks the entry of the SARS. Special Journal of the Medical Academy and Other Life Sciences., 1(3). doi: 10.58676/sjmas.v1i3.15

Vasilieva M., Condrea A., Gasnas A., Manea, D., Groppa S. (2021). Neurological complications of Herpes Zoster, during convalescence from COVID-19 infection: Two clinical cases European Journal of Neurology; 28(SUPPL1):822. Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1307832. WHO

Pleșca Iu., Vasilieva Maria, Turcan E., Cheianu E., Bălănuța T., Crivorucica I., Groppa Sergiu.( 2023). EPV-381. Miliary Tuberculosis with Central Nervous System Dissemination. Abstracts of the 9th Congress of the European Academy of Neurology June 2023. Budapest, Hungary. ePosters. European Journal of Neurology., 30 (S1):783.

Vasilieva Maria. (2020). Epileptic seizures – primary manifestation in cerebral autoimmune pathology. Differential diagnosis between MS and SLE (case study). In: Congress dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the founding of the "Nicolae Testemițanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy, October 21-23, 2020, Chişinău. Chisinau: USMF., R: 377.

Ciolac D, Racila R, Duarte C, Vasilieva M, Manea D, Gorincioi N, Condrea A, Crivorucica I, Zota E, Efremova D, Crivorucica V, Ciocanu M, Movila A, Groppa SA. Clinical and Radiological Deterioration in a Case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease following SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Hints to Accelerated Age-Dependent Neurodegeneration. Biomedicines. 2021 Nov 19;9(11):1730. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9111730 . PMID: 34829958; PMCID: PMC8615966.

Racila., Ciolac D., Leahu P., Gasnaș A., Gorincioi N., Chiosa V., Munteanu C., Dragan D., Vasilieva Maria, GROPPA S. MD, PhD, Academician, Professor. (2021). Boosting Cortical Inhibition with Theta Burst TMS in a Case of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus International Congress "American Clinical Neurophysiology Society 2021 Annual Meeting and Courses". Organizers - American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, February 10-14, 2021. E-poster., 3

Cojocaru Victor, Ceban Emil, Vasilieva Irina, Vasilieva Maria., Vasiliev I., et al. (2020). Successful Resuscitation of Deadly SARS - Cov-2 / COVID-19. Bioinformatics & Proteomics Open Access Journal.;4:1.

Raghavendra Rao, Hitesh Lakshmi Billa, A Rekha, Sireesha Bala, et al. (2023). Is H3N2 Influenza flare-up and troubling like COVID? World Journal of Biology Pharmacy and Health Sciences., 14(01): 020–030. DOI:

M M Karindas, Ilie Vasiliev, Raghavendra Rao, M.V. (2022). Death of a doctor is the death of a community. Indian Journal of Medical and Allied Research., 11:1:1-2



How to Cite

Vasilieva, I., Vasilieva, M., & Vasiliev, I. (2024). Role Of Acute Vascular Distress Syndrome In The Development Of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome In Sars-Cov-2 And Modern Views On The Research And Treatment Of Critical Coronavirus. Special Journal of the Medical Academy and Other Life Sciences., 2(4).